Extensive use of existing state-of-the-art technologies is made regarding such items as: a) camera alignment procedures, b) telescope thermal control and mechanical assembly principles, c) video processing techniques. The instrument includes also an internal shutter to protect it from sun radiation in non-operational phases such as launch, attitude acquisition, or safe modes. Astrium Geo-Information Services takes over the spacecraft operations of the civil channel with an exclusive license once each Pleiades satellite has been commissioned. 28), Naturally, with two agile spacecraft in orbit (and a FOR of 47º into any direction from nadir), there is the potential to revisit any point on Earth within 1 day (Ref. A very important operational criteria is the devivery of the data products for the commercial customers in record time. 2) The French defense system (DGA) is the defense operator of the system. To reduce the in-flight operations, the so-called AMETHIST method has been processed for the first time to be able to compute the parameters of the radiometric model in case of non-linear behavior. Figure 31: Functional block diagram of the HiRI instrument (image credit: TAS). The total dry mass of the S/C is 940 kg (compatible with Rockot, PSLV, and Soyuz launchers) + 75 kg of hydrazine. Several types of acquisition modes are defined: • One-pass acquisition mode: The satellite agility offers the possibility to locally enlarge (widen) the swath by realizing from the same orbit and thus quasi simultaneously the acquisition of several adjacent swaths within the field of regard (FOR). H < 2235 mm, Roll of 60º within 25 s; Pitch of 60º within 25 s, Table 6: Characteristics of the HiRI instrument. The focal plane is physically coupled with the detection electronics to form the integrated detection unit. 38), Figure 20: Pleiades-1B acquired this pansharpened, high-resolution image of Istanbul (Turkey) on Dec. 5, 2012 (image credit: Astrium Services), • December 02.2012: CNES is reporting that operations on the Pleiades-1B are nominal; the solar panels are deployed, the attitude is stabilized, the thermal and power balance is reached. They provide total coverage of the Earth’s surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days. This kind of image can be used to compute the SNR, and, combined with a single reference image in the same overpass, can deliver geometrical stability information. . The high output data rate of a MVP (up to 1.2 Gbit/s) is transmitted downstream through 2 LNTHD (Liaison Numérique Très Haut Débit), which are serial integrated digital interfaces. Thus, non-linear normalization coefficients can be computed by a histogram matching method. The merger took place in May 2010 and was fully integrated in December 2010. B2= 620-700 (red), In the same timeframe, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) performed also studies of a new program under the name of COSMO-SkyMed. The Fregat upper stage performed a 3 hour, 26 minute flight to deploy its payload. 43). 10) 11), Figure 2: Overview of organizations in ORFEO agreement (image credit: CNES). MS bands: Five detector line arrays, each of 1,500 elements (7,500 pixels in cross-track), are utilized for the four MS bands (line arrays). Three days after the launch, the Pleiades satellite MTF was computed thanks to images of stars in the Pleiades constellation, as a sign of destiny. The development of innovative and complementary instrumentation in the radar field (e.g., multi-mode and flexible-support SAR's offering high-resolution data) and in the optical field (e. g., hyperspectral sensor with capabilities of variable spatial resolutions as well as high detection sensitivities in the visible and infrared spectral regions) are major objectives of the programs. A high degree of image location accuracy is achieved by minimizing the interface between the imager and the bus. It is time now to keep on looking ahead and up above in order to face the next challenge of high resolution optics — the design and the calibration process of the next generation cameras with embedded active optics control loops (Ref. As these landmarks give the true location of the line of sight, a block adjustment of several images is performed to determine the alignment bias that minimize the location error. Figure 40: Variance of the radiometric noise computed on steady-mode image (image credit: CNES). Regional image receiving stations have been installed (Japan, China and Canada). 43), 1) Astrium Geo-Information Services is the civil operator of Pleiades. - This was followed by another orbit maneuver after which the SSOT satellite (secondary payload) separated from the Fregat stage, 3 hrs. - The 4 ELISA satellites (secondary payloads) were released at ~ 700 km, 59 minutes after lift-off. In addition to images of well-characterized landscapes that have been used for years and continuously improved thanks to previous satellites commissioning, the Pleiades project has been taken many images of the Moon since the launch. • Astrium Geo- Information Services also manages a network of regional image receiving stations (RIRS). The spacing between the centers of two consecutive lines is 936 µm. Image data are time-tagged in this unit. Figure 27: Exploded view of the HiRI camera (image credit: TAS, CNES). 47). Pléiades – Resolution: 50cm. A Pleiades Neo satellite. Called the ASAP-S (Arianespace Structure for Auxiliary Payloads-Soyuz) this system continues the ASAP (Arianespace Structure for Auxiliary Payloads) concept previously developed for missions with members of the Ariane family, which have enabled “piggyback” passengers to be flown for the past 20-plus years. In 2005, CNES signed also Pleiades cooperation agreements with SNSB (Swedish National Space Board) with INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) of Spain, with ASA (Austrian Space Agency) of Austria, and with BELSPO (Belgian Science Policy Office) of Belgium. Several AMETHIST calibration campaigns were performed during the commissioning phase, over a large collection of landscapes that mix Earth, ocean surfaces and clouds in order to get a large set of pixels at different radiance levels. Attitude and orbit determination: An autonomous orbit determination is performed by a DORIS receiver. But many parameters can be modelled and calibrated, either during on-ground validation tests or during in-flight operations. In the framework of the Pleiades- 1A and Pleiades-1B in-flight calibration, studies took place in order to determine the calibration precision that could be reached from the acquisitions realized during the different lunar cycles. The satellite electrical architecture is organized around a central computer, based on a SPARC ERC 32 computer, communicating via MIL-STD-1553B buses to the onboard equipment. Pléiades-HR 1A and Pléiades-HR 1B provide the coverage of Earth's surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days. To ensure a balanced power budget over one day, the satellite points its arrays towards the sun before and after every imaging sequence. The data are coded following a trellis-coding scheme in 8-PSK-type modulators that include their own SSPA (Solid State Power Amplifiers). 57) 58). The latest Pleiades satellite also offers 50 cm resolution with an impressive 20 km swath. Arianespace's medium-lift launcher orbits Pléiades 1B,” ArianeSapce, Dec. 02, 2012, URL: http://www.arianespace.com/news-mission-update/2012/VS04-success.asp, 27) “Arianespace Lofts Pleiades 1B Using Soyuz Medium-lift launcher,” Space Travel, Dec. 02, 2012, URL: http://www.space-travel.com/reports/Arianespace_Lofts_Pleiades_1B_Using_Soyuz_Medium_lift_launcher_999.html, 28) http://smsc.cnes.fr/PLEIADES/GP_systeme.htm#orbite, 29) Frank Döngi, “Earth Observation from Space, The European Landscape in the Second Decade,” SPIE Remote Sensing, Sept. 19-22, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic, URL: http://spie.org/Documents/AboutSPIE/PDF/ERS11-plenary-Doengi.pdf. 26 minute flight to deploy its payload the launch to EO data Soyuz. 465 Mbit/s in 3 channels, each of 155 Mbit/s capacity 1 (... Figure 31: Functional block diagram of the Pleiades images balanced power over! User community Mbit/s each direction of 12 stars to interlace each elementary response to produce a well sampled one include... 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